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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY ^ gg 



3 9999 06544 681 5 

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ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

DIRECTOR OF 
LIVESTOCK DISEASE CONTROL 

FOR THE 

Year ending, November 30, 1936 




Publication of this Document Approved by the Commission on Admimsiraiion and Finance 
700. l-'37. Order 821. 



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Barnstable . 
Berkshire . , 
Bristol . . . 
Dukes . . 
Essex . . . 
Franklin . . 
Hampden 
Hampshire 
Middlesex . . 
Nantucket . 
Norfolk . . . 
Plymouth . 
Suffolk . . 
Worcester . 



6 P. D. 9S 

Tuberculin testing. 

Tuberculin testing is conducted cooperatively with the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry, under the same general 
agreement as has been in operation since the work of eradication under the 
accredited herd plan was accepted and adopted by the Commonwealth in the 
year 1922. The field work is done by veterinarians employed or authorized by 
the Massachusetts Division of Livestock Disease Control and by veterinarians in 
the employ of the Federal Government. 

The following tabulation is a record of the work for the year:' 

Herds Head Reactors No lesions 

Veterinarians paid by the 

State on an annual salary 

basis 6,910 61,894 371 108 

Veterinarians paid by the 

State on a per diem basis 13,780 129,543 578 136 

Veterinarians paid by the 

owners 46 1,140 1 — 

Veterinarians paid by the 

Federal Government 6,054 51,346 472 92 



26,790 243,923 1,422 336 

Appraisals, Salvage and Indemnities 

For the purpose of showing more clearly the data pertaining to appraisals, 
salvage and indemnities, the following tables are submitted, by which the trend 
of values is shown month by month. 
Appraisals: (See Table 4: page 7). 

As regards appraisals, it will be noted that the average for the year, $99.20 
for all cattle, is much higher than for the year 1935, namely, $84.57. 
Salvage: (See Table 5: page 7). 

Referring to the table of salvages, attention is called to the higher average 
price brought by purebred reactors each month in the year as compared with the 
price of grade animals. The average salvage value for all cattle was $35.16, as 
compared with $20.62 in 1935. 
Indemnity: (See Table 6: page 8). 

In addition to the indemnity paid by the Commonwealth to the owners of 
reactor cattle additional compensation averaging $20.25 per animal was received 
by them from the Federal government and so, by adding together the awards 
of both State and Federal governments and the average salvage, the average 
total amount received by owners is shown, — i.e., $84.95 for grade animals and 
$119.49 for registered purebred animals. While this may not appear high it 
must be borne in mind that these figures are the average totals and include cattle 
(cows, bulls, calves) of different ages, in varying conditions of health and, 
referring to cows, in all stages of lactation (dry, springers, new milch, etc.). 
Cattle Reported as Showing Physical Symptoms of Tuberculosis 

In the year 1892 the General Court of the Commonwealth enacted laws by 
which bovine tuberculosis was recognized as a contagious disease of domestic 
animals and provided for the quarantine of, condemnation of and payment for 
cattle which on physical examination are declared affected with tuberculosis. 
The year 1936 is the first year since that date, 1892, in which there were no 
condemnations under the provisions of that law or amendments thereto. 



P. D. 98 





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P. D. 98 9 

INTERSTATE MOVEMENT OF CATTLE INTO MASSACHUSETTS 

The reduction in the number of reactors to the tuberculin test slaughtered 
during the years 1935 and 1936 has naturally resulted in a lessened demand for 
cattle required as replacements. This reduction is reflected in the number of 
cattle, both State and interstate, that passed through the dairy section of the 
quarantine station at Brighton (11,703 this year as compared with 12,535 in 
1935), and in the number received at points other than the quarantine station 
(19,003 this year as compared with 21,057 in 1935). 

By law (Division Order No. 43), all cattle, whether intended for dairy, breed- 
ing, exhibition, pasturing or slaughter purposes, transported into the Common- 
wealth must actually be accompanied by a written permit from the Division of 
Livestock Disease Control, unless consigned direct to the quarantine station at 
Brighton, the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company 
or to slaughtering establishments where federal inspection is maintained. Cattle 
intended for purposes other than immediate slaughter must originate from prem- 
ises where tuberculin testing is conducted under State supervision and on which 
premises there were no reactors at time of last entire herd test and must be 
accompanied by a certificate of a tuberculin test made within twelve months if 
from herds with an accredited status or within six months if from a herd with 
any other status. 

Under the provisions of Division Order No. 44, cattle intended for dairy pur- 
poses must also be accompanied by an "owners' and shippers' " statement to the 
effect that said cattle have not aborted nor reacted to a blood test for Bang 
abortion disease during the twelve-months period immediately prior to shipment. 

These regulations pertaining to both tuberculosis and Bang abortion disease 
have been rigidly enforced as in previous years. 

Quarantine Station at Brighton 

The following tabulation is a record of the receipts at the dairy section of 
the quarantine station, indicating the origin and disposition of cattle received : 

Origin: Released Held for Retest 

Interstate : on Papers 

Canada 293 



Maine . 
New Hampshire 
New York 
Rhode Island 
Vermont 



5,813 

1,869 

69 

52 

1,578 



Released 
4 
14 
14 



Reacted 
1* 



31 



Total 
298 

5,827 

1,883 
69 
52 

1,609 



Massachusetts 


9,674 
1,960 


63 
5 

68 


1 

1 


9,738 
1,965 


*No lesions. 


11,634 


11,703 


Disposition : 

Massachusetts 

Maine .... 

New Hampshire . 

Rhode Island 

Reacted 


Interstate 

7,690 

7 

1 

2,039 

1* 




State 

1,821 

1 

143 


Total 

9,511 

8 

1 

2,182 

1 



9,738 



1,965 



11,703 



*No lesions. 

In addition to the cattle received at the dairy section there were received for 
purpose of immediate slaughter: 376 tuberculin reactors, 50 Bang's disease 
reactors, 3 animals affected with mastitis, 3 with mange, and 2 with actinomy- 
cosis. 



10 



P. D. 98 



The sales barn has been maintained in a very satisfactory sanitary condition 
and thoroughly cleaned at regular intervals throughout the year. Six hundred 
ninety (690) trucks were cleaned and disinfected under direct supervision of an 
employee of the Division. 

Service in the prevention of hemorrhagic septicemia, or shipping fever, has 
been continued. Three thousand six hundred fifty-two (3,652) head of cattle 
were given preventive inoculation. 

Arrivals at Points Other Than Brighton 

The following tabulation is a record of receipts at points outside of the quar- 
antine station at Brighton: 

Four thousand thirty-five (4,035) permits were issued in 1936 as compared 
with 4,252 in 1935. Of this number 189 were for exhibition purposes. 

On these permits there were received 19,003 dairy cattle, 804 exhibition cattle 
and 1,980 cattle for immediate slaughter. 

The dairy cattle originated at the following points : 

California 2 New York 1,041 



Canada 2,489 

Connecticut 1,796 



Delaware . 
Iowa . 
Maine 
Michigan . 
Minnesota 
Missouri . 
New Hampshire 
New Jersey 
Total . , 



3 
52 

849 

260 

69 

24 

2,865 

30 



Ohio 1,561 

Pennsylvania 611 

Rhode Island 870 

South Carolina .... 1 

Tennessee ..... 16 

Vermont 5,666 

Virginia 1 

Washington 2 

Wisconsin 795 



19,003 



Of this number 18,460 were released on certificates of health furnished by the 
states of origin; 543 were held, re-tested and released. 

The total number of dairy cattle received interstate was 28,741 (9,738 at 
Brighton; 19,003 at other points). 

The following comparative table covering a two-year period gives an analysis 
of the sections from which cattle intended for restocking purposes were obtained. 

Canada . 

6 Mid- Western states 
5 New England states 
New York 
Pennsylvania . 

7 Scattered states . 

28,741* 31,807** 

* 9,738 Brighton: 19,003 other points. 
** 10,750 Brighton: 21,05 7 other points. 

From the tabulation it would appear there is an increasing demand among 
Massachusetts buyers for dairy cattle from New York State and Canada and 
a corresponding decreasing demand for such cattle from the New England 
States where for many years they obtained the greater part of their supply: 



1936 


1935 


2,787 


2,399 


2,761 


3,329 


21,417 


24,212 


1,110 


585 


611 


1,218 


55 


64 



CATTLE EXPORTS 

During 1936, 2,191 head of cattle identified and released at the dairy section 
of the Brighton quarantine station were transported direct to - her states. In 
addition, 3,049 interstate shipping certificates were issued by tic Division cover- 
ing 6,223 head of Massachusetts cattle for consignment to o.^er states and 
countries. This number represents an increase of 306 certificates and 682 head 
of cattle over the record for the corresponding period in 1935. 



P. D. 98 



11 



The following tabulation is a record of cattle exports shipped direct from 
Massachusetts herds in 1936 : 

Destination 

Alabama 

California ..... 



Connecticut 2,229 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Nebraska . . . . . 



Head 


Destination 








Head 


1 
10 
2,229 


New Hampshire 
New Jersey 
New York 








817 

29 

497 


2 


North Carolina 








1 


2 


Ohio . . . 








27 


3 


Oklahoma 








7 


3 
20 


Pennsylvania . 
Rhode Island . 








29 
1,919 


3 


South Carolina 








3 


37 


Tennessee . 








2 


11 


Vermont . 








525 


5 
1 

1 


Virginia . 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 








1 
13 

7 






6,205 








Cuba 1 












1 



18 



LICENSED CATTLE DEALERS 



The twelve-months period just passed has provided an opportunity to observe 
the successful working of the law (Chapter 426, Acts of 1935), by which certain 
powers of control are vested in the Division of Livestock Disease Control in 
connection with the licensing of persons engaged in the business of dealing in 
bovine animals and the supervision of certain definite phases of the conduct of 
the business. Intended as a means of assuring buyers of dairy animals of reason- 
able protection in the purchase of tuberculosis-free cattle, the results obtained 
have proven without question the value of such legislation. 

Under the rules and regulations dealers in dairy cattle are required to main- 
tain premises and buildings suitable for the handling of dairy cattle and to 
allow on such premises through purchase, repossession, etc., only such cattle 
as would have the approval of the office of the Division of Livestock Disease 
Control, — i.e., cattle from premises rated as tuberculosis-free supervised prem- 
ises. Dealers are required to submit weekly reports of all cattle bought, sold 
or repossessed. In the enforcement of the rules and regulations frequent inspec- 
tions are made of the premises maintained by dealers, tuberculin tests are con- 
ducted approximately every ninety days and weekly reports are insisted upon 
and the tag numbers of all cattle purchased and sold are carefully checked. 

The need of this type of legislation is revealed by the occasional finding of 
reactors in dealers' herds and the frequent detection of irregularities in connec- 
tion with dealers' purchases, such as cattle from premises not maintained under 
supervision, cattle from herds in which reactors had been found at time of last 
previous test, cattle which had not been tested within the required period of 
time, i.e., within one year of date of purchase, etc. 

Two hundred seventy-two (272) licenses were issued during the year. Eight 
(8) licenses were revoked for failure on the part of licensees to submit weekly 
reports. Three dealers made application for renewal of licenses which had been 
revoked, furnished information as to previous purchases, etc., paid the five- 
dollar renewal fee required and were reinstated. 

Convictions were obtained against three persons, one each in Chicopee, 
Methuen and Worcester, for dealing in cattle without a license. In each case 
a fine was imposed. 



12 P. D. 98 

BANG BACILLUS DISEASE 

Next in importance to bovine tuberculosis, not alone from an economic view- 
point but also in the possible relationship to public health, Bang bacillus disease 
is now engaging the attention of all persons interested in animal and human 
health problems. 

This disease was originally and is now commonly referred to as contagious 
abortion, a term which would seem to convey the meaning that animals affected 
with the disease always abort. In reality the act of abortion is only an irregular 
symptom of the disease and may or may not take place. Although it is now 
commonly conceded that abortion in cattle may be caused by various agencies, 
it has been quite definitely determined that by far the greater number of abor- 
tions are traceable to infection caused by the bacillus known as Bang bacillus. 
While this fact is now universally accepted by those interested in livestock disease 
control, present opinion is divided concerning the best method of combatting 
the disease; by eradication, which would necessarily require destruction by 
slaughter of all affected animals; or by vaccination, with the thought of even- 
tually establishing immunity. 

As to diagnosis, it is generally agreed that the disease can now T be accurately 
diagnosed by the use of the agglutination blood test which has been stand- 
ardized and is proving highly efficient. 

Eradication. — The elimination plan now conducted by the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry on what may be called a voluntary request basis is 
a step toward eventual eradication. Under this plan cattle which react must 
be tagged, branded and slaughtered. If slaughtered, the owner retains the amount 
received from sale of the animal for beef purposes and, in addition, receives 
compensation from the federal government in amount not to exceed $25 for a 
grade animal or $50 for a purebred. 

In the twenty-nine-months period from July 1, 1934, to November 30, 1936, 
the federal department conducted tests in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
in 307 herds containing 9,697 head of cattle six months of age or over. Of these 
154 herds, 4,349 head were negative; 153 herds were infected, in which 813 of 
5,348 head reacted. On November 30, 1936, there were 103 herds, 3,639 head, 
under federal supervision. 

Vaccination. — Reports from veterinarians and from an increasing number of 
owners of dairy herds point to favorable results obtained from the use of non- 
virulent abortion vaccines in establishing immunity in adult animals in herds 
where infection exists. While this method of procedure does not tend to eradi- 
cation, it apparently is proving highly successful from the standpoint of economy. 

In connection with this method of combatting Bang abortion disease, the 
United States Bureau of Animal Industry is conducting so-called "calfhood" 
vaccination experiments throughout the United States. Calves between the ages 
of four and eight months vaccinated with the same type of vaccine employed 
in adult animals are apparently made resistant to possible future infection, do 
not harbor the infection, do not become spreaders and frequently do not react 
to the blood test at time they reach breeding age. 

The Division of Livestock Disease Control does not arrange for conducting 
blood tests except to State-owned herds and in connection with undulant fever 
investigations. 

Service by the Division to the public is still limited to the examination of 
blood samples submitted for that purpose. Vials for obtaining samples and 
laboratory service are furnished without charge. Samples must be marked for 
purpose of identification and full information is required as to the identity of 
each animal from which blood is obtained and as to the name and address of 
the owner. 

Fifteen thousand three hundred ninety-one (15,391) blood samples were 
examined during the year and 880 were positive to titres of 1-100 or higher. 
These samples were submitted from 194 herds and 7,042 head of cattle. One 
hundred twelve (112) of these herds with 4,237 head have now passed at least 



P. D. 98 13 

one clean test. The degree of infection can not be estimated from these figures 
as many of the samples were from cattle from which samples had been drawn 
one, two, three or more times previously. Thirty (30) of the herds containing 
1,041 head of cattle six months of age or over, accredited in the vear 1935, were 
re-accredited and 10 new herds containing 535 head were accredited. Three (3) 
of this total of 40 herds ; i.e., the Alfalfa Farm, Topsfield, 68 head ; Broadmeadow 
Farm, Wayland, 74 head; and Myhaven Farm, Weston, 52 head, — all purebred 
Guernsey herds, — were recently disposed of at dispersal sales, leaving a total 
of 37 herds, 1,382 head of cattle now accredited. 

RABIES 

Rabies continues to be one of the major problems with which this Division 
has to contend. Its occurrence, often somewhat endemic in character, usually 
fails to arouse any great interest except in localities where the attention of the 
public is temporarily called to more or less serious injuries or even death caused 
by bites inflicted by a rabid animal. Even in such cases the resultant scare is 
all too soon forgotten. In view of the nature of this disease and the fact its 
spread depends wholly on actual contact, usually through the bite or scratch 
of an affected animal, it unquestionably would be possible, with the cooperation 
of dog owners, dog lovers, and persons empowered to enforce laws pertaining 
to the licensing of dogs, to completely eradicate the disease by the observance 
of strict quarantine imposed for a period of one year or possibly less, providing 
such cooperation could be accomplished. 

With the exception of two isolated cases, one in Nantucket and one in Attle- 
boro, all positive cases of rabies occurred this year in the counties of Essex 
(11 towns, 48 cases), Middlesex (18 towns, 49 cases), Suffolk (3 towns, 20 
cases) and Worcester (8 towns, 15 cases). The total for 1936 (134 cases in 42 
towns) when compared with the record for 1935 (290 cases in 71 towns) shows 
a reduction of 54%. This is the lowest number recorded since the year 1919. 
Of the 134 cases 14, or 10%, were dogs the ownership of which could not be 
determined. 

Early in the year, through letters directed to the mayors of all cities and the 
selectmen of all towns in the portion of the State lying east of the City of 
Worcester, attention was called to the benefits to be derived from and the advis- 
ability of conducting clinics for the inoculation of dogs for prevention of rabies. 
Although the number of communities holding such clinics (33) was considerably 
less than that of last year, it is with a feeling of satisfaction that we report so 
decided a decrease in the number of eases of rabies as referred to above. 

In 49 of the towns in which cases were reported in 1935 there were no cases 
this year. However, there were cases reported this year in 20 additional towns 
which, added to the 22 towns in which rabies occurred both years, make a total 
of 42 towns in which rabid animals were found this year. There was no case 
of human rabies reported. 

Ninety-six (96) persons were reported bitten by rabid animals; 94 persons 
and 20 families were reported exposed. Laboratory examination was made of 
the brains of 343 animals, of which 107 were positive, 233 negative and 3 ques- 
tionable. 



14 



P. D. 98 



Rabies 



Forward, Year 1935 .... 

December, 1935 

January, 1936 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Forward 

Total 

Tbe above record refers to the 
following animals: 

Cats 

Cattle 

Dogs 

Squirrels 

Rats 

Rabbits 

Monkevs- 



Showing 
Symptoms 



13 

5 

14 

9 

19 

16 

16 

15 

5 

4 

4 

14 



Cr 



134 38 



5 - - 

3 - - 

126 36 5 

- 2 - 



84 
4 

13 

12 
5 

10 
5 
6 

9 
4 



152 



5 

9 

138 



Contact 



•2 S 

rs o 



4) ^5 co ^ .« 






— c 

WS5 



M O 



11 



11 



Bite Cases 



89 
333 
386 
417 
523 
618 
914 
728 
1,158 
800 
582 
525 
386 



15 
7,442 



2 « 



3 S 



6 
4 
1 
3 
4 
7 
S 
3 

12 



15 

14 

16 

17 

22 

20 

15 

30 

21 
9 

13 
5 — 
- 157 



7,459 50 197 157 



1 
49 



21 

171 
3 
1 
1 



157 



173 
369 
425 
467 
566 
672 
966 
772 
1,215 
842 
603 
552 
419 
168 



8,209 



48 

21 

8,131 

5 

1 

1 



Total positive cases, 134 



Andover 2 

Arlington 3 

Attleboro 1 

Boston 6 

Boylston 1 

Burlington 1 

Chelsea 6 

Danvers 4 

Everett 3 

Groton 1 

Haverhill 1 



1936 
RABIES (POSITIVE) BY TOWNS — DOGS 



Hoi den 1 

Lawrence 15 

Lynn 11 

Lunenburg 1 

Maiden 6 

Marblehead 1 

Marlborough 1 

Melrose 2 

Methuen 1 

Nantucket 1 



Newton 1 

New Braintree .... 1 

North Andover ... 6 

Phillipston 1 

Reading 2 

Revere 5 

Salem 1 

Saugus 2 

Shrewsbury 1 

Somerville 2 



Swampscott 3 

Tewksbury 2 

Tvngsborough .... 1 

Wakefield 1 

Waltham 2 

Westbo rough 1 

Wilmington 2 

Winchester 14 

Woburn 1 

Worcester 8 



RABIES (POSITIVE) BY TOWNS 
Cats 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Andover 
Boston . . 
Chelsea . 
Wakefield 



Cattle 
1 



Westford . . 
Wilmington 
Woburn . . . 



Cats 
1 



Cattle 
1 



Realizing the tendency on the part of the public to underestimate the need 
of continued vigilance in order to prevent a recurrence of disease and to encour- 
age the enforcement of the law pertaining to dogs, the following open letter was 
published in the press. 

To the Citizenry of Massachusetts: 

In January, 1935, the State was very much alarmed due to the prevalence of 
rabies in its dog popnlat'on, as during the preceding eight years 4,330 positive 
cases of rabies had b en reported and 15 human deaths. Here was an average 
per year of over 542 cases of rabies and the Division of Livestock Disease Con- 
trol was importuned to take immediate action to free the State of the menace 
of this dread disease. 



P. D. 98 15 

The campaign that followed included letters to the press, to the mayors and 
selectmen of cities and towns east of a line drawn just west of Worcester (the 
infected territory), several radio talks and other addresses — all to make the 
citizenry antirabic-innoculation-minded and secure the establishment of anti- 
rabic inoculation clinics in the various municipalities. This work secured the 
establishment of more antirabic inoculation clinics the past two years than the 
State had ever known. 

In 1935 the number of cases of rabies reported was 290. In 1936, to date 
(and our fiscal year ends the 30th of this month) the cases number but 121, and 
not one human death. In all probability the number for 1936 will be under 
125 — just about 23% of the old yearly average. 

These results are most gratifying, but the end is not yet. More clinics must 
be established. The stray dog, the prolific source of the spread of the disease, 
must be eliminated. If the police will but gather in unlicensed dogs as »they are 
supposed to do, there will be no stray dogs. 

Cities and towns holding clinics over a period of years have been entirely 
freed from rabies. 

We earnestly ask that you help us establish a< clinic in your town or city. If 
we can have 50% of the dog population inoculated, we are positive rabies will 
be controlled. 

Charles F. Riordan, Director 
Division of Livestock Disease Control 

November 12, 1936 

HOG CHOLERA 

It has long been a recognized fact that in an area such as Massachusetts where 
hog owners depend principally upon garbage for feeding, the raising of swine 
cannot be accomplished successfully without the continued use of protective 
measures to prevent the occurrence of hog cholera and its allied diseases. In 
the prevention of cholera, protection can be provided only by the establishment 
of immunity by the use of anti-hog cholera serum and hog cholera virus through 
the application of so-called simultaneous or double treatment. 

Inasmuch as in this treatment it is necessary to use the virus or actual causa- 
tive agent of the disease, regulatory measures regarding the possession and use 
of both hog cholera serum and virus have for several years been deemed neces- 
sary in order that the possession and use of these products may be properly 
supervised. Under these regulations, Division Order No. 20, only persons author- 
ized by this Division have the right to possess and use these products. 

On premises where hog cholera has at any time existed or on which cholera 
virus has been used, attempts to raise swine usually result in failure unless the 
swine have been immunized previously, are given preventive treatment when 
placed on the premises or are treated at time of weaning. 

Associated with and often coexistent with cholera is hemorrhagic septicemia, 
a disease in which the mortality rate is invariably high and which differs con- 
siderably from cholera inasmuch as it is usually acute in character, death occur- 
ring within a short time after symptoms first show, whereas cholera is usually 
of a more chronic type. 

During the past year there have been called to the attention of this Division 
a few outbreaks diagnosed as a mixed infection of hemorrhagic septicemia and 
paratyphoid. Proper sanitation, dry quarters, etc., are important factors in 
the prevention and treatment of conditions of this nature and, in fact, are neces- 
sary at all times to the successful raising of swine. 

Although intended originally to be restricted to hog cholera control, the 
service of veterinarians employed by the Division in this work is furnished on 
request and without cost to the owner in the diagnosis and immunization treat- 
ment of hog cholera as well as its several allied conditions. Authorization is 
also given veterinarians employed in private practice to apply treatments for 
such owners as may prefer to employ them for that purpose. All materials 



16 P. D. 98 

used in the treatment of these conditions are billed direct to the owner or the 
authorized veterinarian by the biologic supply concern furnishing same. 

During the year 89,151 treatments* for and in the prevention of hog cholera 
were applied by veterinarians in the employ of the State on 822 premises. In 
addition, 29,292 treatments were applied oh 183 premises by veterinarians en- 
gaged in private practice. 

In connection with hemorrhagic septicemia and similar conditions there were 
also applied 30,852 treatments* by State-employed veterinarians, and 7,886 treat- 
ments by private veterinarians. 



*Erratum. Report for year 1935, P. D. 98, page 13, should read, "79,541 hog 
cholera treatments" "24,787 hemorrhagic septicemia treatments". In addition 
to these treatments applied by veterinarians in the State employ there were 
26,101 hog cholera treatments and 9,910 hemorrhagic septicemia treatments made 
by veterinarians in private practice. 



MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES 

Actinomycosis (commonly called "lump jaw"). — Twenty-nine (29) suspected 
cases in cattle were reported. On investigation 18 were declared diseased, were 
condemned and eventually slaughtered. Ten (10) were released. 

Anthrax. — Reports of anthrax on five premises located in Berkshire County 
resulted in a positive diagnosis in one cow each on two separate premises, one 
in the Town of Richmond and the other in the Town of Sheffield. The carcasses 
were disposed of by burning, the premises were disinfected and preventive in- 
oculation was given to all other cattle on the premises. 

Blackleg. — Preventive treatment was applied to 1,608 head of cattle on 154 
premises located in 57 towns. This service is rendered without charge upon 
request of owners of young cattle in districts where pastures infected with the 
disease are located. 

Glanders. — The last case of glanders on record in Massachusetts occurred 
in the year 1931. This fact would indicate that the disease may now be consid- 
ered as eradicated. Nine (9) horses considered as possible suspects were reported 
during the year. On physical examination and blood tests they were all released. 

Mange. — This condition was reported in 101 head of cattle on six premises. 

Tuberculosis in swine. — This condition is rarely called to the attention of this 
Division excepting by inspectors of slaughtering. Three (3) cases were so 
reported during the year. 

Laboratory Service 

In addition to 15,391 blood samples examined in connection with Bang bacillus 
disease in cattle, blood samples from 5 horses and 13 goats were also examined 
for this disease and were found negative. 

Specimens were submitted for laboratory examination and diagnosis for acti- 
nomycosis, anthrax, diamond skin disease, food poisoning, glanders, hemorrhagic 
septicemia, contagious laryngotracheitis, new growths and tuberculosis. 

ANNUAL INSPECTION OF NEAT CATTLE, SHEEP AND SWINE 

In accordance with Chapter 129, section 19 of the General Laws, the annual 
inspection of neat cattle, sheep and swine and of the premises where kept was 
ordered on November 15, 1935, to be completed on or before January 1, 1936. 

From reports received from the 355 towns and cities in the Commonwealth, 
inspections were made of 24,077 premises on which were located 207,862 head of 
cattle, 8,204 sheep and 81,922 head of swine. 

Regional meetings of inspectors of animals were held in the month of Novem- 
ber at Boston, Greenfield, Pittsfield, Springfield and Worcester for the purpose 
of giving information and instruction relative to the duties of the inspectors of 
animals. 



P. D. 98 17 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, Chapter 

304, Acts of 1936 $4,000.00 

Expended during the year for the salary of the Director $4,000.00 

Appropriation for personal services of clerks and sten- 
ographers, Chapter 304, Acts of 1936 $26,215.00 

Expended during the year for personal services of clerks 

and stenographers $25,900.39 

Unexpended balance 314.61 



$26,215.00 



Appropriation for services other than personal, includ- 
ing printing the annual report, traveling expenses 
of the Director, office supplies and equipment and 
rent, Chapter 304, Acts of 1936 $11,000.00 

Brought forward from 1935 Appropriation 469.72 



Total amount appropriated $11,469.72 

Expended during the year for the above mentioned 

purposes $10,225.57 

Unexpended balance 1,244.15 



$11,469.72 



Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians 
and -agents engaged in the work of extermination 
of contagious diseases among domestic animals, 
Chapter 304, Acts of 1936 $75,360.00 

Brought forward from 1935 appropriation 146.00 



Total amount appropriated .$75,506.00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: 

Services of salaried agents $38,960.00 

Services of per diem agents 32,638.75 

Labor hired 1,948.75 



Total expenditure $73,547.50 

Unexpended balance 1,958.50 

$75,506.00 

Appropriation for traveling expenses of veterinarians 
and agents, including the cost of any motor vehicles 

purchased for their use, Chapter 304, Acts of 1936 $27,000.00 

Brought forward from 1935 Appropriation 54.85 

Transferred from appropriation for small items 11.32 

Total amount appropriated $27,066.17 

Expended during the year for traveling expenses of 

agents $19,592.48 

Unexpended balance 7,473.69 

$27,066.17 



Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of horses 
killed during the present and previous years ; travel, 
when allowed, of inspectors of animals, incidental 
expenses of killing and burial, quarantine and 
emergency services and for laboratory and veteri- 
nary supplies and equipment, Chapter 304, Acts 
of 1936 $5,000.00 

Supplemental budget, Chapter 432, Acts of 1936 200.00 

Total amount appropriated $5,200.00 



18 P. D. 98 

Expended during the year for the above mentioned 

purposes $4,361.93 

Unexpended balance 838.07 

$5,200.00 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of tuber- 
cular cattle killed, as authorized by Section twelve 
A of Chapter 129 of the General Laws, as appear- 
ing in the Tercentenary Edition thereof, and in 
accordance with certain provisions of law and 
agreements made under authority of Section 33 of 
said Chapter 129 as amended during the present 

and previous year. Chapter 304, Acts of 1936 $40,000.00 

Supplemental Budget, Chapter 432, Acts of 1936 210.00 

Brought forward from 1935 Appropriation 20,150.82 

Total amount appropriated $60,360.82 

Expended during the year for the following: 1399 
head of cattle killed (Chapter 129, General Laws, 
as amended) $44,388.11 

Unexpended balance 15,972.71 



$60,360.82 

Reimbursement of towns for inspectors of animals : 

Appropriation for the reimbursement of certain 
towns for compensation paid to inspectors of ani- 
mals, Chapter 304, Acts of 1936 $5,500.00 

Expended during the year for reimbursement of cer- 
tain towns $5,031.51 

Unexpended balance 468.49 

$5,500.00 



The average amount paid for cattle slaughtered under the provisions of Chap- 
ter 129, General Laws, as amended, was $52.87 for registered purebred cattle 
and $29.27 for grade cattle. 

There has been received during the year for Hemorrhagic Septicemia treat- 
ments at Brighton, $547.80 ; and for Cattle Dealers' licenses, in accordance with 
Chapter 426, Acts of 1935, $1,375.00. 

SUMMARY 

It is with considerable pleasure that I append the following table showing 
the diminishing cost to the State of this Division. 

Total Amount Paid All Other 

Year Expenditures for Reactors Expenditures 

1933 • $626,233.81 $473,987.29 $152,246.52 

1934 525,425.40 369,940.71 155,484.69 

1935 306,591.87 156,737.23 149,854.64 

1936 ...... 182,015.98 44,388.11 137,627.87 

There can be no fair comparison made of the items headed "All Other Ex- 
penditures" for the years 1935 and 1936 with the expenditures of 1933 and 1934 
without considering the following facts: in 1932 all step-rate salary increases 
were discontinued; April 1, 1933, all salaries and the wages of per diem veteri- 
narians were cut ; in 1935 full restoration of salary and per diem wage rates 
and step-rate increases are included in the item $149,854.64. These amounts 
total $10,110. And so, for a fair comparison, $10,110 should be deducted. The 
same is true of 1936, but in this case the amount to be deducted is $12,925. 

In 1936 the Federal Bureau of Animal Industry removed several of its opera- 
tives (who serve at no cost to the Commonwealth) from the State and the slack 
was taken up by our own State-paid agents. Notwithstanding the lower cost 



P. D. 98 19 

to the State, it is very gratifying to be able to show in the following tables 
the increased amount of work accomplished by our field staff in 1935 and 1936 
over all preceding years. The first table has to do with bovine tuberculosis tests 
only; the second table, hog cholera; and these latter treatments in 1936 were 
greater in number than in any of the preceding years. 





1934 


1935 


1936 


Cattle tested 


270,624 


261,204 


242,783 


Number tested by 








Salaried Agents 


52,680 


(19%) 56,873 (22%) 


61,894 (25V 2 %) 


Number tested by 








Per Diem Agents 


160,929 


(59%) 133,796 (51%) 


129,543 (53%) 


Number tested by 








Federal Agents 


57,015 


(21%) 70,535 (27%) 


51,346 (21%) 






Number of Swine Treatments for: 


Total number of 


Year 




Hog Cholera Hemorrhagic Septicemia Swine Treatments 


1929 




93,199 23,514 


116,713 


1930 






88,740 23,166 


111,906 


1931 






86,031 31,401 


117,432 


1932 






90,444 20,879 


111,323 


1933 






85,099 16,965 


102,064 


1934 






84,230 14,408 


98,638 


1935 






79,541 24,787 


104,328 


1936 






89,151 30,852 


120,003 



Our three-bid plan put in operation early in 1935 for the protection of dairy- 
men in the sale of reactors has placed Massachusetts at the top of the forty-eight 
states of the Union as obtaining the highest average salvage for dairy cattle. The 
average salvage in 1936 was $35.16 ; in 1935, $20.62 ; in 1934, $14.45 ; and the 
increased cost of beef explains only a small part of the increased salvage. The 
adoption of this plan has placed many thousands of dollars in the pockets of 
dairymen for reactors, which they would not otherwise have received and, 
incidentally, saved the State many thousands in indemnities. 

While the market for milch cows in 1936 was 25% higher than the 1935 prices, 
our average appraisal for 1936 ($99.20) was only 15% above the average 
appraisal of 1935 ($84.57). Most pleasing of all is the slight increase in the 
average indemnity paid for reactors in 1936 ($32.40) as against $29.27 in 1935, 
an advance of $3.13 or approximately 10%. The credit for this is due to our 
three-bid system and the able, conscientious work of our appraisers. 

Our cattle dealers' license law, enacted in July, 1935, (the first state to pass 
such a law) continues to be of tremendous service in safeguarding the health of 
our herds and the pocketbooks of the taxpayers. It also produces a revenue to 
the State of approximately $1,400 a year. 

I might add that in the past two years there has not been any increase in 
either field or office staff; rather, there has been a decrease of two in the field 
staff and one in the office staff. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Charles F. Riordax, 

Director 



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